The primary purpose of the passage is to

  • A. present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
  • B. describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
  • C. propose a temporary solution to a problem
  • D. analyze a frequent source to a problem

  • E. explore the implications of a findings.
  • Answer: B


The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?

  • A. What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority owned businesses in public works contracts?
  • B. To which governments agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
  • C. How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as “fronts; by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
  • D. How many more minority owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
  • E. What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?
  • Answer: E


According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have

  • A. been specially vulnerable to governmental

  • B. been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
  • C. not had sufficient opportunity to secure businesses created by large corporations
  • D. not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
  • E. not had adequate representation in the centers of government power.
  • Answer: C


The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts results quickly in order might cause it to

  • A. experience frustrations but not serious financial harm
  • B. face potentially crippling fixed expenses

  • C. have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
  • D. increase its spending with minority subcontractors

  • E. revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts
  • Answer: A


The authors implied that the minority owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should

  • A. avoid competition with the larger, more established concerns by not expanding
  • B. concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
  • C. try to expands its customers base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
  • D. pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority owned concerns.
  • E. use its influence with the other corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns.
  • Answer: C


It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by “some federal and local agencies” are

  • A. more popular with large corporations
  • B. more specific
  • C. less controversial

  • D. less expensive to enforce
  • E. easier to comply with
  • Answer: B


Which of the following if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial?

  • A. Corporate contracts with minority owned business totaled about $2 billion in 1979
  • B. Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority owned businesses declined by 25 percent
  • C. The figures collected 1977 underrepreented the extent of corporate contracts with minority owned businesses.
  • D. The estimate of corporate spending with minority owned businesses in 1980 is approximately $10 million too high
  • E. The $1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did $77 million in 1972.
  • Answer: E


The passage most likely appeared in

  • A. a business magazine
  • B. an encyclopedia of black history to 1945
  • C. a dictionary of financial terms
  • D. a yearbook of business statistics

  • E. an accounting textbook
  • Answer: A


The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?

  • A. Annoyed by the proliferations of “front” organizations, corporates are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority owned subcontractors in the near future.
  • B. Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970’s their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
  • C. The significant response of corporation in the 1970’s is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980’s

  • D. Although corporations re eager to co-operate with minority owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970’s made substantial response impossible.
  • E. The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of over expansion that used to plague small minority owned businesses.
  • Answer: C


The primary purpose of passage is to

  • A. raise new issues
  • B. explain an enigma

  • C. refute misconceptions

  • D. reconcile differing theories
  • E. analyze a phenomenon
  • Answer: E


According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting?

  • A. They are established at birth
  • B. They evolve slowly as the bird learns
  • C. They are learned from other indigo buntings.
  • D. They develop after the bird has been forced onto marginal breeding areas.
  • E. The gradually develop through contact with prospective mates
  • Answer: C


It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarly among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions?
I.How much variations, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales?
II.Do local populations of indigo buntings develop their own dialects of figure types?
III.Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation?

  • A. II only
  • B. III only
  • C. I and II only
  • D. II and III only
  • E. I, II and III
  • Answer: E


It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures servers primarily to

  • A. ensure species survival by increasing competition among the fittest males for the females
  • B. increase population density by eliminating ambiguity in the figures to which the females must respond
  • C. maintain the integrity of the species by restricting the degree of figure variation and change
  • D. enhance species recognition by decreasing the number of figure patterns to which the bird must respond
  • E. avoid confusion between species by clearly demarcating the figure patterns of each specials
  • Answer: D


It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

  • A. simulate the conditions in nature.
  • B. Rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition
  • C. Supply an additional clue to species recognition for the indigo bunting
  • D. Provide data on the habits of bunting species other than then indigo bunting
  • E. Confound the indigo buntings in the experiment
  • Answer: B


According to the passage, the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

  • A. What are the limits of the frequency range that will provide recognition by the indigo bunting.
  • B. What is the time duration necessary for recognition by the indigo bunting?
  • C. How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?
  • D. How does variation in the pacing of song figures?
  • E. Is the indigo bunting responding to cues other than those in the song figures?
  • Answer: C

Score: 0/10


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