It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the

  • A. enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enable them to fly great distances
  • B. structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
  • C. fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
  • D. pterosaurs were reptiles
  • E. pterosaurs walked on all fours.
  • Answer: D


The authors views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as

  • A. revolutionary
  • B. unlikely
  • C. unassailable
  • D. probable
  • E. outdated
  • Answer: B


According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished form that of a bird by the

  • A. size of its wingspan
  • B. presence of hollow spaces in its bones
  • C. anatomic origin of its wing strut

  • D. presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
  • E. location of the shoulder joint joining the wind to its body
  • Answer: C


The ides attributed to T.H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

  • A. An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
  • B. An animal’s appearance dramatically over a period of time.
  • C. Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance
  • D. The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome
  • E. The pterosaurs should be classifieds as birds, not reptiles.
  • Answer: B


It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?

  • A. They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.

  • B. They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight
  • C. They flew in order to capture prey
  • D. They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds

  • E. The lived primarily in a forest like habitat.

  • Answer: A


Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?

  • A. New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view
  • B. Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
  • C. Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidenced supporting each is given.
  • D. Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected
  • E. A summary of the materials in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.
  • Answer: B


It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs.

  • A. lived near large bodies of water

  • B. had sharp teeth for tearing food

  • C. were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
  • D. had longer tails than many birds

  • E. consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
  • Answer: A


Which of the following is the principle topic of the passage?

  • A. What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering
  • B. Why income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty
  • C. Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
  • D. Where the areas of agreement are among poverty, employment, and earnings figures
  • E. How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities
  • Answer: E


The author uses “labor market problems’ in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following ?

  • A. The over all causes of poverty
  • B. Deficiencies in the training of the work force

  • C. Trade relationships among producers of goods
  • D. Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
  • E. Strikes and inadequate supplies of labor
  • Answer: D


The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that

  • A. more people were unemployed in the 1930’s
  • B. unemployment now has less severe effects
  • C. social programs are more needed now

  • D. there now is a greater proportion of elderly and handicapped people among those in poverty
  • E. poverty has increased since the 1930’s
  • Answer: B


Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author ?

  • A. Innovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.
  • B. A compromise should be found between the positions of those who view joblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.
  • C. New statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inadequately paid employment cause suffering.
  • D. Consideration showed be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.
  • E. The labor force should be restructured so that it corresponds to the range of job vacancies.
  • Answer: C


The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that

  • A. there are several factors that cause the payment of low wags to some members of the labor force
  • B. unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from joblessness
  • C. recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can exist and can cause hardships for individual workers.
  • D. A majority of those who are jobless at any one time do not suffer severe hardship
  • E. There are fewer individuals who are without jobs at some time during a year than would be expected on the basis of monthly unemployment figures
  • Answer: B


The author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by

  • A. the employed poor
  • B. dependent children in single – earner families

  • C. workers who become disabled

  • D. retired workers
  • E. full-time workers who become unemployed
  • Answer: A


According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the

  • A. recurrence of periods of unemployment for a group of low-wage workers
  • B. possibility that earnings may be received from more than one job per workers.
  • C. Fact that unemployment counts do not include those who work for low wages and remain poor
  • D. Establishment of system of record-keeping that makes it possible to compile poverty statistics
  • E. Prevalence, among low-wage workers and the unemployed, of members of families in which other are employed
  • Answer: E


The conclusion stated about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that

  • A. in times of high unemployment, there are some people who do not remain unemployed for long
  • B. the capacity for self-support depends on receiving moderate-to-high wages
  • C. those in forced idleness include, besides the unemployed, both underemployed part-time workers and those not actively seeking work
  • D. at different times during the year, different people are unemployed
  • E. many of those who are affected by unemployment ae dependents of unemployed workers.
  • Answer: D

Score: 0/10


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