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The field of the philosophy of technology is relatively young. It was founded on the stipulation that technological change is a driver of historical processes, but newer theories challenged this deterministic approach and advocated a reverse direction of the causal arrow, namely—that it is social change that triggers technological innovation. Finally, the two approaches were synthesized in a theory of “technological momentum” that differentiates between different phases in the life cycle of a given technology. This theory stipulates that at the early, formative stage, - a given field of technological innovation is shaped by its social environment. However, as the field matures, it loses its sensitivity to the external social forces and becomes driven primarily by technological considerations. There are numerous practical implications of the interaction between society and technology. As a historical example, the 19th century Europe had all it took to become the home of the first powered flight - but it didn’t. By 1810 the British country gentleman George Cayley had built a working glider, and by the 1890s a German, Otto Lilienthal, had completed more than a thousand daring fl5.ghtsin full-size gliders. Yet mainstream European science turned its back to the prospect of aviation and it was a pair of Americans, the Wright brothers, who took the lead in powered flight.
Choose the correct answer
The example that it was the Americans and not the Europeans who took the lead in powered flight has been used to substantiate which of the following?
Correct Answer: E.
The author has stated that Europe had all that was required to make it the home of the first powered flight. This means that the society had the requisite knowledge and the technology; in other words, the social environment was conducive for the development of technology, however the technological innovation completed its life cycle in America despite being triggered in Europe. This makes it evident that this example has been provided to substantiate the claim that after maturing, the field of technological innovation is no longer sensitive to its social environment, but it starts being driven by technological considerations. In view of the above, it is evident that E is the correct answer as it refers to the statement which has been substantiated by the given example.
When Indian forces sought to follow a “Forward Policy” along the frontier with China, a clash resulted in the autumn of 1962. Both the US and Britain rushed arms to India, without consulting their ally Pakistan. Feeling abandoned by its western allies, Pakistan proceeded to improve relations with China, which alone provided diplomatic and military support during the 1965 conflict over Kashmir. The end of the policy of relying exclusively on the US and the West marked the maturing of Pakistan’s foreign policy, and the next few years saw the relations with both the major communist powers, China and the Soviet Union, improve significantly. In the early 1960s, the US perceptions on China were still shaped by the experience of the Korean War when Beijing had intervened on the side of North Korea, and thousands of American soldiers had died, while many were held as prisoners of war. The US, therefore, reacted unhappily to Pakistan’s rapprochement with China following the signing of the Boundary Accord between the two countries in 1963. When Pakistan provided an air link for China to the outside world in 1964, the US showed its displeasure by cancelling aid earmarked for improving the Dhaka airport. In 1965, the US postponed the Annual Aid to Pakistan consortium meeting to show their disapproval of its emerging friendly relations with China.
Choose the correct answer
Which of the following relations between countries are justified as elucidated in the passage?
Correct Answer: C, D and E.
A careful reading of the passage brings out that Pakistan, US and Britain were allies before 1962, after which Pakistan started improving its relations with China much to the disappointment of the US. This implies that China and the US were rivals. China supported North Korea when numerous American soldiers lost their lives, this implies that the war was being fought between the US and North Korea and they were rivals. There is no indication of the relations that North Korea had with either Pakistan or with India. In view of the above, it is evident that A and B are incorrect; and C, D and E are the correct answers.
The holy scriptures were written by those who had developed (1) ----------- between external nature and their inner (2) -----------. Their objective was to ennoble, elevate and liberate the human (3) --------------.
|Blank 1||Blank 2||Blank 3|
Correct Answer: Harmony, self and spirit and mind
The first blank in the passage has to be completed with a word that can explain the intention of the people who scripted the Holy Scriptures. The later part of the sentence mentions two factors: external nature and something that is more innate than physical in nature. It is known to all that religion performs a balancing act between the inner and outer forces for us. On this criterion, we are led to accept ‘harmony’ as the most suitable answer for the blank.
The second blank in the passage desires us to complete the phrase ‘inner -----‘. The relation it has to the other part of the sentence has been discussed in the earlier paragraph. On the basis of that discussion, we are led to consider ‘self’ as the most preferable option. The other two options ‘health’ and ‘truth’ cannot be suitable as they do not stand in a proper equation with the other phrase ‘external nature’.
The last blank in the passage has to be completed with the use of a phrase that can express the target of Holy Scriptures. Among the options, ‘mind and body’ is not suitable as religion did not bear a direct effect on body. The other option ‘health and wit’ is again rejected. The only suitable option given to us is ‘spirit and mind’ which reflects the impact of religion on the inner self of the person than the external being.
|Column A||Column B||xy||yz|
Correct Answer: B
logx=2k, logy=3k and logz=5k
logx+logy = 2k+3k=5k
log(xy) = 5k
logy+logz = 3k+5k=8k
log(yz) = 8k
Ann and Bill are 120cm and 165cm tall respectively. Their weights are 50kg and 64kg respectively. How much weight in kgs should Ann lose and Bill gain so that the height to weight ratio for both of them is the same?
Correct Answer: 2
Let the weight to be lost by Ann and that to be gained by Bill be x kgs.
Their height to weight ratio will be
120/(50-x) = 165/(64+x)
120*(64+x) = 165*(50-x)
7680+120x = 8250 - 165x
570 = 285x
x = 570/285 = 2
Ann should lose 2 kg and Bill should gain 2 kg
Find the next number in the series 12, 17, 23, 30, 38. Indicate the correct option.
Correct Answer: C
Hence, consecutive numbers are added in the series.
The next number will be 38+9=47
Option C is correct.
In a class of 20 girls and 40 boys, 20% of the girls are 12 years old and 40% of all the students are 12 years old. Which of the following statements is true? Indicate all such statements.
Correct Answer: A and D
Number of girls = 20
Number of boys = 40
Total students = 20+40=60
12 year old girls = 20% of 20 = 20*20/100 = 4
12 year old children = 40% of 60 = 40*60/100 = 24
12 year old boys = 24 - 4 = 20
Percentage of boys who are 12 years old = 20/40*100=50%
Percentage of 12 year old children who are boys = 20/24*100 = 83.33%
Option A is true.
Option B is false.
Option C is false.
Option D is true and E is false.
In total war it’s not just soldiers who suffer and die. By the middle of the 20th century technology had changed the face of battle once again. Now it was possible to kill the enemy without even seeing him, as was brought home to us when we investigated the massive World War Two artillery installations on the Dover coast, and their German counterparts on the French coast. Unbelievable as it sounds, these guns were lobbing shells almost 30 miles across the English Channel. For four years the duel of the big guns saw massive shells arcing across the channel, to wreak death and destruction in France and England. We spoke to a farmer whose land lies near one of the British guns, and he described what it was like to hear the German shells come screaming in, on one occasion sending splinters of steel crashing into his house.
Which sentence substantiates the claim made in the first sentence of the passage?
The correct answer is E. (We spoke to … his house)
The first sentence of the passage is putting forth the claim that apart from soldiers, there are others who also suffer and die or are affected by the war. In the entire passage, the only instance where it has been directly implied that people other than soldiers have also been affected by the war is the last sentence where it has been explicitly brought out that the farmer had shells crashing into his house. It is evident that this could have been dangerous to his life and he obviously was not a soldier fighting the war. Therefore, it is evident that E is the correct answer.
The surest way to happiness is the ---------------- of human desires and wants such that they are easier to satisfy.
Correct Answer: C and D
The sentence demands a word that can retort to the description given in the latter half of it. The words, ‘Entwinement’ and ‘Complication’ are completely opposite to this demanded meaning, but the next two options, ‘Elucidation; and ‘Simplification’ can be perfectly suited to it. The last option, ‘Vexation’ is again an antonym to the desired sense of the word.
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