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GRE Practice: Reading Comprehension Select Many GRE Practice Test 4
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Passage for Questions from 1 to 3
We can enhance development by improving "women power", by giving women the opportunity to develop themselves. Statistics show that the average family size increases in inverse ratio to the mother's years of education, is lowest among college graduates, highest among those with only primary school training, or no education. Malnutrition is most frequent in large families, and increases in frequency with each additional sibling. The principle seems established that an educated mother has healthier and more intelligent children, and that this is related to the fact that she has fewer children. The tendency of educated, upper-class mothers to have fewer children worked even without access to contraceptive services.
The educational level of women is significant also because it has a direct influence upon their chances of employment; and the number of employed women in a country's total labor force has a direct bearing on both the Gross National Product and the disposable income of the individual family. Disposable income, especially in the hands of women, influences food purchasing and therefore the nutritional status of the family. The fact that this additional income derives from the paid employment of women provides a logical incentive to restrict the size of the family.
What are the various resultant factors of woman being educated?
Correct Answer: A, C, D and E
The passage asks us to pay attention to the various factors that are connected to woman education and the way it shapes up the life of their families and the nation in turn. The factors included are that of the family health, family sizes, employment chances and the resultant addition to families having more disposable income at hand. The correct answers thus, are options A, C, D and E the second option is incorrect because the size of the families is lower in case of educated and well-aware women and not the other way round.
Which among the following are conditions witnessed when the family size is larger?
Correct Answer: A, C and D
The passage tells us about the conditions that prevail in a family, the size of which is larger. We are told that with the size of the families getting larger, the stress on the nutritional care provided to the children is decreased such that the health of each new born child gets declining and a causative factor behind this is the mother being less or uneducated. The correct answers therefore, are options A, C and D.
How is the nutritional status of a family influenced?
Correct Answer: A, C and E
The passage throws light on the way in which the declining nutritional status of families, especially children, can be dealt with. The last part of the passage tells about the way in which the educated mothers can take this initiative in their hands by taking employment opportunities; so that the disposable resources can be increased using which they can provide better food to their families. The correct answers to the question are hence contained in the A, C and E options.
Passage for Questions from 4 to 6
Using infant mortality as a key indicator of the status of children, we now begin to have the broad features of a hypothesis as to the causes of higher or lower mortality rates. One aspect is the complex of factors involving the access of mothers to trained personnel and other facilities for child delivery, the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and the quality of health care and nourishment which babies receive. The other aspect, indicated by rural urban differentials, is the possible importance of human settlement patterns in relation to the availability of health care and related facilities such as potable water, excreta disposal systems, etc. Thus, in a special sense it is much cheaper to make health and other basic services available to a community when it is densely settled rather than widely dispersed.
It is possible to argue, however, that both these sets of factors are closely related to a third one, namely, income levels. Poorer mothers and babies have less access to health-care facilities and nourishment than those who are better off; urban communities are on an average much better off than rural communities. That economic condition plays a crucial role in determining the status of both mother and child, is beyond dispute. But the question really is whether this is the only decisive factor or whether factors such as the availability of medical facilities, health care programs and nutritional programs have an independent role. If so then the settlement patterns which affect service delivery to the mother and child target groups become a relevant consideration. These are clearly issues of some importance for policy and program planning.
Which among the following statements are correct?
Correct Answer: A and D
The question given to us requires a proper understanding of all the details provided in the passage about the health and care facilities as they are provided to people in urban and rural settlements. Also included are the factors that influence the mortality rates in these areas. On the basis of the details given to us, the correct statements among the options are A and D; while the rest are wrongly made. The options A and C are opposite to each other and a comparison with the actual passage tells us that option A among them is the correct one.
Pick out the aspects related to the mortality rate being higher or lower.
Correct Answer: B, C and E
The passage brings before us three major aspects or factors that help in shaping the mortality rate ratio in a community. These include firstly, the kind of healthcare facilities and knowledge provided to the women and children, second, the settlement patterns of the people and lastly the income levels of the family. There are other independent factors too stated in the passage but the writer doesn't include them in this list so they cannot be made a part of this list. The correct answers thus, are options B, C and E
Which factors discussed in the passage are independent of the influences from the multiple aspects of mortality rate variation?
Correct Answer: B, D and E
The previous question given to us states the three aspects that influence the rate of growth or decrease in the mortality rate; on the basis of which, we know that the correct answer to this question is carried in the options B, D and E one can also refer to the sentence 'But the question really is whether this is the only decisive factor or whether factors such as the availability of medical facilities, health care programs and nutritional programs have an independent role.', that carries the answers to this question.
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